A new body aiming to develop a national forest certification system and formulate standards in India has been set up to promote “responsible” trade within the forestry sector for better management of Indian forestry resources.

The Network for Certification and Conservation of Forests (NCCF) is set to have representation from a number of stakeholders including government and industry names, and is expected to complete formulation of certification standards within one year.

According to NCCF, the certification body will create standards that reflect the “plurality” of the forests and the link they have with the people of India.

NCCF chairman K K Singh said: “Though India-specific, the national forest certification system and standards shall align with the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification’s globally-recognised sustainability benchmarks.”

Commenting on the new certification system, the NCCF stated that the idea behind the launch was to ensure that responsible forestry practice was encouraged throughout India, whilst ensuring that it is socially equitable, economically viable and environmentally friendly.

The system is also endorsed by the PEFC-International, who have stated that the national certification will have a “positive impact on forest management far beyond India”, particularly when taking into account the country’s position in international markets.

Elsewhere in the world, many other companies such as Greenwood Management have already pledged their support for the conservation of worldwide forests and the reduction in deforestation.

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The arrest of Brazil’s “king of deforestation” is set to help prompt a breakthrough in the effort to protect the Amazon rainforest.

Ezequiel Antônio Castanha was arrested in February along with 15 associates in what has been labelled as a major breakthrough for environmental enforcement and conservation in the Amazon rainforest.

According to environment ministry Ibama, Castanha and his gang were responsible for around 10 per cent of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon last year.

Prosecutors are now requesting that Castanha be kept in protective custody throughout what is expected to be a long legal process to prevent him from reoffending.

According to Daniel Azeredo, the lead prosecutor in the case, there has never been an investigation that has uncovered such a large amount of land and money within one group.

He continued: “If he remains in prison, we expect a fall in deforestation rates. If he is released however, it is very likely that he will continue with the same activities, due to a sense of impunity and of course, because it is a very lucrative business.”

Castanha’s arrest has already had an impact on deforestation rates, with levels falling by 65 per cent since his arrest was warranted in August 2014.

Unlike Castanha’s forestry firms, Greenwood Management are devoted to protecting the forests through sustainable operations.

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The forest department in India has signed a deal to work with corporate houses, both private and public, to achieve 33 per cent green cover in Jharkhand by 2015.

The department had approached Tata Steel, Uranium Corporation of India, and Hindustan Copper to conduct a survey of their land and submit the status report by 31 March 2015.

According to Sanjeev Kumar, conservator of forest (working plan) in Jamshedpur, the aim for the project is to ensure that the region achieves its 33 per cent green cover goal, an aim established by the Tree Outside Forest Land (TOF) plan to promote green conservation on the land.

Mr Kumar continued: “To check REDD (reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation) and carbon sequestration (process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a reservoir) are the two guiding points of the working plan aimed at green conservation.”

As part of the conservation project, the corporate bodies have been asked to survey the available land, nature and status of the land in their command area and submit a report to the forest department before following up and taking action suggested by the results to boost green coverage and reduce deforestation.

Some companies such as Greenwood Management have already pledged to support to the fight against excessive deforestation in the world’s forests.

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Asia Pulp & Paper (APP) has openly welcomed the Rainforest Alliance independent evaluation of its Forest Conservation Policy, which concluded that the company has made moderate progress towards meeting its commitments towards a reduction in deforestation.

The Forest Conservation Policy was announced by the firm on 5 February 2013 and marked an immediate end to natural forest clearance by Asia Pulp & Paper’s pulpwood suppliers, as well as a range of other methods that are aimed at preventing deforestation.

According to the firm, engaging with the Rainforest Alliance has provided a valuable perspective on its climate change efforts and increases transparency within the industry.

Commenting on the evaluation, APP’s managing director of sustainability Aida Greenbury, said: “We’re pleased that the Rainforest Alliance has recognised the progress we are making. We believe today’s report shows that our efforts to achieve Zero Deforestation are on the right track.”

Following the evaluation, APP has pledged to improve the policy implementation measure and work hard on the areas that were marked by the Rainforest Alliance as requiring additional focus.

Ms Greenbury also highlighted the benefits of the evaluation in bringing to light the issues currently plaguing Indonesia’s forests, and called on other stakeholders to support the APP Zero Deforestation Policy.

Companies such as Greenwood Management have already pledged to support such causes and are working hard to safeguard forests against excessive deforestation.

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Former US vice president Al Gore has revealed a $90 trillion (£59.6 trillion) plan to cut deforestation to zero and eradicate the need for cars in the world’s cities.

Working with former president of Mexico Felipe Calderon and the Global Commission on the Economy and Climate, they argue that redesigning all of the world’s cities so people live in more densely packed neighbourhoods could save the planet.

Outlining their plan in Davos at the World Economic Forum this month, the pair claim that around $90 trillion is set to be spent on infrastructure investment in the coming years anyway.

Speaking to Business Insider, Mr Calderon said: “We cannot have these cities with low density, designed for the use of cars. We recommend those cities should have more density and more mass transportation.”

By reforming land use, Mr Calderon stated that it would be possible to bring deforestation down to zero, which would have a major impact on climate change around the world.

“The mistake we made in Mexico was to let cities develop however they want, and it’s a mess,” said Mr Calderon, who noted one of the key challenges would be to persuade city mayors that the new way of designing cities is beneficial for everyone.

According to the New Climate Economy, fewer than 500 cities are set to account for more than 60 per cent of global income growth and half of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions growth between now and 2030.

Companies such as Greenwood Management realise how important it is to protect the world’s forests and they are working together to ensure they are preserved and safeguarded against excessive levels of deforestation.

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Climate change has seen many a drought in Brazil, and the latest one is beginning to have a major impact on one of the country’s most lucrative exports – coffee.

Coffee growing regions across the country are predicted to see around 50 per cent of the normal amount of rainfall this month and next month, meteorologist at Somar Meteorologia in Sao Paulo, Celso Oliveira said.

As the biggest grower and exporter of coffee in the world, a shortage in the amount of beans grown could have a catastrophic impact on the country’s economy.

The dry weather has sparked concerns over damage to flowering coffee trees, with John Stephenson, chief executive officer of Toronto-based Stephenson & Co. Capital Management, telling Bloomberg: “Coffee is very weather-dependent. You’ve seen a massive drawdown in stockpiles in Brazil. When that’s coupled with the drought, supply is tight-to-constrained.”

While northern regions of Brazil will stay “almost completely dry” over the coming few weeks, a smattering of light rain is predicted in southern Minas Gerais and most of Sao Paulo, according to another meteorologist. The expert also confirmed that as much as 40 per cent of the crop is at risk as water is needed in order to allow the ‘cherries’ containing the precious coffee beans to develop.

It was also feared that this level of continued dryness could compound last year’s crop damage.

Companies such as Greenwood Management welcome the focus on climate change as it is already ensuring that its work in the biodiversity hotspot of the Brazilian rainforest is always sustainable and supports the environment.

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Environmental group Greenpeace has stated that the world is waking up to the impact excessive levels of deforestation can have on climate change.

Rolf Skar, who helps lead forest conservation work for the body, explained that the public should take heart from recent developments.

Speaking to the New York Times, he stated that a “potentially historic moment” has arrived “where the world is starting to wake up to this issue, and to apply real solutions”.

Mr Skar was commenting after Brazil took strong action to restrict the destruction of the Amazon rainforest in a bid to slow the impact of global warming on the planet.

Glenn Hurowitz, a managing director at Washington-based consultancy Climate Advisers, noted that the march of civilisation has for thousands of years “been associated with converting natural ecosystems to crops that serve only man”.

He added: “What’s happening now is that we are trying to break that paradigm. If that succeeds, it’s going to be a major development in human history.”

Nigel Sizer, director of forest programmes at the World Resources Institute, added that new and recovering forests could hold the key to battling climate change as they help to pull dangerous emissions out of the air.

He said: “Every time I hear about a government program that is going to spend billions of dollars on some carbon capture and storage programme, I just laugh and think, what is wrong with a tree? All you have to do is look out the window, and the answer is there.”

Companies including Greenwood Management realise the importance of protecting the world’s forests and are already working to ensure that they are preserved and safeguarded against excessive deforestation.

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Information and data regarding the status of their greenhouse gas releases in the forest sector was recently submitted by countries including Colombia, Guyana, Indonesia, Malaysia and Mexico, in order to help build a forest reference emission level.

The countries submitted the required information to the secretariat of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at the recent UN Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Lima, Peru.

By analysing this data, benchmarks will be able to be established which will help to assess the performance of these countries in the implementation of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation). It will also help to see how developing countries are contributing towards the boosting of forest carbon stocks as well as the sustainable management of forests.

Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, president of the UN Climate Change Conference and Environment Minister of Peru, said: “The knowledge of forest inventories and their carbon stocks is essential to be able to take action on forests. Countries are not only recognising the economic value of forests, but also their value for biodiversity, their cultural value and their ability to provide people with a better quality of life.”

Brazil was the first country to submit its information regarding greenhouse gas emission reductions in the forest sector, and the technical assessment of the emission level was finished last week. The data from the other countries will now be assessed by forestry experts coordinated by the UNFCCC secretariat.

Companies such as Greenwood Management welcome the focus on climate change and continue their work to ensure that the Brazilian rainforest is protected for generations to come.

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As representatives of nearly 200 global governments gather in Lima, Peru, for a major UN climate change summit, new limits for global warming are being decided upon and the issue of the destruction of forests is also under the microscope.

Countries are tipped to agree to a deal that would see the limit for global warming set to two degrees Celsius from the pre-industrial age. In order to achieve this ambitious goal, each country would need to slash emissions between 40 and 70 per cent prior to 2050.

Mauro Fernández, from Greenpeace’s Weather and Energy campaign, told the Buenos Aires Herald newspaper: “Whatever happens in Peru will set the foundation for the Paris summit in 2015. It’s a great opportunity for all countries to move forward with an effort to stop climate change. Argentina could be one of the leaders in Lima considering its potential in renewable energy sources.”

In terms of the worst climate change offenders, in Argentina, climate change is being felt most directly in the Patagonia region. The average temperature has risen by one degree Celsius over the last 50 years, marking the biggest rise in the country. Overall, the average rise during the 50 years has been 0.5 of a degree, it was confirmed.

Soledad Aguilar, head of the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences’ climate change career, told the newspaper: “Argentina hasn’t done its homework on climate change and has a cynical view about the issue. There’s no national strategy and other countries of the region like Uruguay and Chile have done much more.”

However, the Argentine Government’s new director for climate change, Laura Juárez, argues that numerous initiatives have been rolled out in a bid to tackle global warming: “One of Argentina’s strong points is the Forest Law. Even though it has been subject to mistakes and it needs to be amended, it’s positive legislation. We have also carried out an inventory of greenhouse gases and use energy-efficiency criteria in housing programmes. We want all provinces to have climate change in their agenda.”

Companies such as Greenwood Management welcome the focus on climate change as it is already ensuring that its work in the biodiversity hotspot of the Brazilian rainforest is always sustainable and supports the environment.

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Greenpeace Netherlands activists confronted a container ship approaching Rotterdam as they believed it was carrying timber produced from illegal sources in the Amazon.

Soured from the Brazilian sawmill and exporter Rainbow Trading by the Belgian timber company Leary Forest Products, and heading for Belgian companies Lemahieu and Omniplex, the timber is thought to have been bought from a sawmill well known for trading illegal wood.

Greenpeace is urging EU authorities to enforce the law against illegal timber in Europe (EUTR) by removing the timber prior to it being allowed to enter the European marketplace unchecked. Rainbow Trading was one of the main subjects of a recent investigation by Greenpeace Brazil regarding the processing and trading of illegal timber in the Amazon.

Daniela Montalto, senior forests campaigner, Greenpeace International, said: “Official documentation used by loggers in the Amazon is not worth the paper it is written on. These documents are being used to launder illegal timber from Brazil. Buying from companies like Rainbow Trading is risky business. Their timber must be seized, not sold.”

Greenpeace is calling for companies that are not complying with the requirements of the EUTR to be penalised.

Companies such as Greenwood Management realise the importance of cutting out this illegal timber production as part of the drive to ensure that the globe’s rainforests are preserved and safeguarded against excessive deforestation.

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There has been a decrease in rainfall across almost 70 per cent of the Amazon rainforest since the start of the new millennium, according to a major new study.

Researchers deployed a more accurate system to assess rainfall by using satellite technology that is able to cut through the cloud cover to see the true picture. The area of the Amazon that has suffered declining rainfall covers 5.4 million sq km.

The report, published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggests that the uptake of carbon by the Amazon’s trees is slowing and therefore the rainforest is becoming less able to cope with climate change, the Epoch Times reported.

The report said: “Our results provide evidence that persistent drying could degrade Amazonian forest canopies, which would have cascading effects on global carbon and climate dynamics.”

A number of studies have suggested that forest clearances for agriculture and by illegal loggers are among the factors responsible for causing drought in areas of the rainforest. Sufficient rainfall in the area is essential to produce many of the crops Brazil relies on, including the coffee harvest.

Greenwood Management supports the sustainable use of rainforest resources to guard against excessive deforestation.

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A pledge has been made by the Indonesian Government regarding a reduction in the level of deforestation, after it was confirmed that the country now has a higher deforestation rate than Brazil.

Forestry Ministry secretary-general, Hadi Daryanto, has confirmed that the Government has taken steps to lower the levels, especially in areas that are particularly prone to the issue, such as Kalimantan and Riau.

The measures taken include the expansion and extension of the conversion of natural forests and peat land, as well as a compliance audit on numerous firms operating in Riau. The deletion of illegal logging and a provision of degraded-forest areas for economic activity will also help to stem the problem of deforestation, the Forestry Ministry said.

However, despite these measures, Hadi did say that the Ministry had so far fallen behind on its plans to clamp down on the issue in Sumatra, Jambi, West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan. He confirmed that the Ministry aimed to “continue to improve its performance.”

He was reported as saying in the Jakarta Post: “Today several parties, including the Forest Ministry, have signed a cooperation agreement to address haze issues under the coordination of the Coordinating Economic Ministry.”

Signing the agreement was Coordinating Economic Minister, Chairul Tanjung, Agriculture Minister Suswono, the Home Ministry’s law enforcement deputy Himsar Sirait, National Disaster Management Board chairman Syamsul Maarif,and the Environment Ministry’s disaster mitigation director Masduki.

Hadi went on to say that a further agreement would be signed later this week by the Ministry and the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK), the Home Ministry, the National Land Agency (BPN) and the Public Works Ministry. It would aim to settle territorial conflicts relating to forest areas, he said.

Companies including Greenwood Management realise the importance of such a pledge and are already working to ensure that the globe’s rainforests are preserved and safeguarded against excessive deforestation.

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As the fight for the Presidency rages on in Brazil, differing opinions regarding the issue of deforestation have come under the spotlight, with some prominent scientists believing that the problem is not in fact being tackled.

Philip M. Fearnside, researcher at the National Institute for Amazon Research in Manaus, told the New York Times: “The mantra in Brasília is that they have deforestation under control, but the evidence on the ground shows this is not true.”

While forest conservation is said to be a key part of both current President Dilma Rousseff and her rival, Marina Silva, Ms Rousseff’s plans include creating mining projects and dams in order to build on Brazil’s economic growth – plans that seem to undermine any environmental concerns.

Meanwhile, former environment minister Ms. Silva, argues that Ms Rousseff’s plans are the reason for the rise in deforestation in Brazil, as well as the country’s refusal to put its name to a UN declaration which aims to erase deforestation completely by 2030.

She told the news source: “Deforestation is rising again because of incompetence, inefficiency and a lack of commitment in protecting the Amazon.”

However, Brazil’s current environment minister, Izabella Teixeira, argued that “no country has done more than Brazil to fight illegal deforestation”. Despite the clearing of almost 20 per cent of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest since the 1960s, Ms Teixeira maintains that the country is a prime anti-deforestation example.

“I would love for the forests of Indonesia or the Congo River Basin to have the same levels of protection we have forged,” she added.

With so many factors working against the protection of Brazil’s precious forests, such as illegal logging and forest fires, it is more important than ever to ensure that the Brazilian Amazon and its products are managed in a sustainable way for future generations. Greenwood Management’s work plays a key role in ensuring the forest is a useful economic resource as well as a protected environmental gem.

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Tropical rainforests of the future – including the Amazon – could become an ‘impoverished kind of savannah’ as a result of climate change, according to one of the top climate scientists in the world.

Brazil’s National Secretary for Research and Development Policies, Carolos Nobre said that, while progress had been made in terms of limiting deforestation in the Amazon, there was still a long way to go.

Mr Nobre – who is also a member of the UN Secretary General’s High-level Panel on Global Sustainability – said that the method of modelling had given insight into the potential negative impacts of climate change.

He told the Centre for International Forestry Research’s ‘Forests News’ blog: “We are in a good moment in terms of transforming land-use change in the tropics… but in the present there are areas in the Amazon in which a repeated cycle of deforestation, regrowth and fire has led to a landscape that is highly degraded.

“It’s an impoverished kind of savannah. And I think that’s what the forests of the future will look like if climate change is not checked.”

Mr Nobre is due to speak at the upcoming Colloqium on Forests and Climate, which is being held in New York on 24 September. He will speak along with six other world-renowned scientists and will focus on the key role that science plays in addressing the issue of climate change.

He told the blog: “Science is playing a very important role in fighting illegal deforestation, and also in finding sustainable solutions for the Amazon.”

Companies such as Greenwood Management ensure their work in the biodiversity hotspot of the Brazilian rainforest is always sustainable and supports the environment.

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Experts believe that the end of the world’s “war on trees” is in sight amid what is being labelled as the green revolution as governments finally break the link between an increasing human population and a drop in the number of trees.

At a United Nations meeting set to be held late in September, many countries are expected to agree to restore between 10 and 15 million hectares of woodland and to safeguard large significant areas of the Amazon Rainforest in Brazil.

Although deforestation continues, the rate has dramatically slowed in the last decade, with a decrease of 3 million hectares lost every year. According to Tim Christophersen of the UN Environment Programme (Unep) this change in attitudes is partly due to the worldwide realisation of how valuable forests are to the survival and growth of humanity.

Mr Christopherson believes that the agreement should promote cautious optimism within the forestry industry and around the world. He said: “I think we are seeing a real sea change in the way deforestation is being addressed and prioritised.”

Company’s like Greenwood Management are already working with the government to ensure that the rainforests are preserved and safeguarded against excessive deforestation.

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The Corporate Services Corps (CSC) from technology giant IBM is being sent to Brazil in a bid to help preserve the Amazon rainforest.

The CSC is partnering up with The Nature Conservancy (TNC) to carry out its work in Brazil, following reports from the TNC that no other location in the world is more essential to the survival of the human race than the Amazon rainforest.

Steve Hamm, a writer for IBM, took to the Smarter Planet blog to write that the Amazon rainforest “harbours one-third of the planet’s biodiversity, produces one-fourth of the fresh water and plays a key role in warding off the worst effects of climate change.”

Deforestation, illegal logging and forest fires have all played a major part in the ongoing destruction of the Amazon River basin region, which covers more than 2.7 million miles of land. The Brazilian Government has said that almost 20 per cent of the Amazon rainforest has been lost over the course of the last 40 years, and this is only set to continue.

Mr Hamm confirmed that that was exactly why IBM’s CSC was helping to “make it easier for municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon to establish land-ownership records, monitor land use and, potentially, stop illegal deforestation in its tracks.”

The CSC programme is hoping to develop IBM staff members into skilled personnel able to offer assistance to both local Governments and non-Government organizations (NGOs) in emerging markets. Employees from across the globe with skills in certain areas are sent to locations where they can help to address issues including health care, economic development and transportation.

Stanley S. Litow, vice president for IBM Corporate Citizenship & Corporate Affairs, said in a statement: “This partnership with The Nature Conservancy provides an opportunity for IBM to exert environmental leadership on the ground that will balance the need for economic growth with the need to provide sustainable performance in the environmental space.”

Firms such as Greenwood Management, who are already working to help save the rainforest, are delighted to see companies such as IBM taking the initiative to preserve such a crucial part of our future.

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A previously uncontacted tribe has emerged from the Amazon rainforest, claiming to have been shot at and contracted the flu virus.

Speaking at the Envira River on the border between Brazil and Peru, interpreters were able to translate due to the tribes Panoan dialect being similar to that of nearby tribes.

The tribal people communicated that non-natives had fired at them, and more had died due to contracting the flu, which has the potential to have devastating effects, as isolated tribes such as this one have no immunity to the virus.

They further added that many of the elderly had been slaughtered, and homes set alight. The tribespeople indicated that so many had died they were unable to bury all of the bodies. Following the intrusion it is believed that the tribe now holds 40-50 members.

At first, the tribal people were “afraid and wary”, noted Carlos Travassos of Brazil’s National Indian Foundation while speaking to Forbes. But the medical team treated them before they went back in to the rainforest.

It is widely believed that illegal loggers or drug traffickers disturbed the tribe, forcing them out of the rainforest. Growing concern of occurrences like this has led to calls for the governments of Brazil and Peru to protect the indigenous groups living in the Amazon rainforest from outsiders.

Companies, such as Greenwood Management, are recognising the importance of preserving the rainforest and allowing isolated tribes such as these to continue their natural existence without intrusion by developing sustainable alternatives for wood sources.

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New research has suggested that strengthening communities’ sense of ownership and control in forests could cut deforestation and climate change.

Analysts say that Governments are failing to take full advantage of the opportunities to combat climate change and empower communities that strengthened tenure rights and laws could offer.

The data from the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) reveals that in forestry areas officially overseen by local communities, deforestation rates can be up to hundreds of times lower than areas which are managed privately or by the state.

For example, in Brazil and Guatemala, local tenure has seen deforestation fall by 12 per cent. In areas of Mexico, community management has led to deforestation rates being up to 350 times lower.

The researchers analysed satellite images and deforestation rates and were able to map these against different tenure approaches to create the report. If taken on board, the implications could be significant, given that 10 to 20 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions each year come from deforestation.

The analysis report finds: “This approach to mitigating climate change has long been undervalued. Governments, donors and other climate change stakeholders tend to ignore or marginalise the enormous contribution to mitigating climate change that expanding and strengthening communities’ forest rights can make.”

Companies such as Greenwood Management ensure their work in the Brazilian rainforest is sustainable and supports the environment.

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Members of the Amazon’s ‘lost tribe’ of indigenous people have made contact with the outside world for what is believed to be the first time.

It’s reported that ‘a few dozen’ members of the unnamed tribe have contacted people living in the Brazilian village of Sympatico in the state of Acre, which is itself more than a week’s travel from the closest road.

The indigenous people are thought to belong to the same tribe that was filmed from the air back in 2010. It is not known how many are in the tribe but estimates suggest there are around four communities with a population in the region of 600, the Belfast Telegraph reported.

The contact by the tribe was confirmed by Brazil’s Indian affairs department, which said the people had asked for food and clothing.

Actual facts about the people are thin on the ground, but it is believed they originate from across the border in Peru. However, increasing activity by illegal loggers in the Peruvian Amazon and possibly drug trafficking, is thought to have driven them off their traditional lands and into the Brazilian Amazon. Gangs of heavily-armed illegal loggers have been spotted taking mahogany and teak, which is exported to make garden furniture.

Greenwood Management supports the sustainable use of rainforest resources to ensure both the rights of indigenous people and to ensure the environment is protected.

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Brazil no longer has the dubious title as the world’s largest rainforest destroyer, according to information from a former forestry leader in Indonesia.

The amount of forest cleared in Brazil in 2012 stood at 460,000 hectares but Indonesia cut down more tropical forest, with an estimated clearance of 840,000 hectares in the same period.

The new figures mean Indonesia has now overtaken Brazil, according to the former head of Indonesia’s government forestry data gathering department. Belinda Arunarwati Margono headed the division for seven years and says that Indonesia radically under-reported the true extent of the problem.

She calculated that Indonesia lost almost double the amount of forest as Brazil in 2012, even though its tropical forests are only a quarter of the size of the Amazon. Indonesia is the third biggest producer of greenhouse gases in the world, the majority of which is due to forest clearances.

Ms Margono blamed the problems with the figures on red tape and technical problems. She said that better information is being made available but Indonesian laws make it impossible to fully share data with the rest of the world, The Guardian reported.

Greenwood Management supports the sustainable use of rainforest resources.

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